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Volume 6, Issue 1, March 2022

Review Article JRPMS, Vol 6, No 1, March 2022, p.1-8
The role of stem cells in oral bone regeneration
Garyfallia Kremmyda
Keywords: Bone defects, Bone regeneration, Stem cells
Abstract
Oral bone regeneration has revolutionized implant dentistry by enhancing both the quantity and quality of the available bone, ultimately leading to improved treatment outcomes. In recent years, the use of stem cells for regenerative purposes has shown promising results. The aim of this study was to review the current literature concerning the clinical applications of Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) and/or Adipose Stem Cells (ASCs), for the treatment of oral osseous defects. An electronic search of Ovid Medline database was conducted. All types of human studies that applied MSCs and/or ASCs for implant site development were included. Pre-clinical and in vitro studies were excluded. Out of the initial 282 identified records, 22 were considered for inclusion. Even though most reports showed some benefit after the use of MSCs/ASCs, the review indicated that there is lack of consensus, regarding the methodology and the outcomes assessment. The clinical significance and the feasibility should be further studied with standardized techniques.
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Review Article JRPMS, Vol 6, No 1, March 2022, p.9-13
Dentinogenesis imperfecta: An update
Efthimia Tsoukala, Georgia Chochtoula, Iosifina Theodorou, George I. Lambrou
Keywords: Amelogenesis, Dentin, Dentinogenesis, Metabolic disease, Osteogenesis
Abstract
The term Dentinogenesis Imperfecta refers to diseases that affect the dental tissue, consisting of enamel or dentin. The disease leads to insufficient quantitative or qualitative enamel and dentin tissue formation, leading to Amelogenesis Imperfecta or Dentinogenesis Imperfecta, respectively. These diseases have a similar clinical appearance and their differential diagnosis requires good knowledge of their characteristics. They are hereditary, have a great diversity in clinical, radiological and histological appearance and require a long-term and combined treatment plan. Finally, they are often found as part of syndromes and in-depth understanding of their characteristics can help in the early diagnosis of these congenital disorders. A very common metabolic disease, in which incomplete dentinogenesis is found as a subsequent finding in more than 50% of patients, is Osteogenesis Imperfecta. In the present work, we have attempted, to review the latest data on Dentinogenesis Imperfecta, thus enabling a specialist clinician to more easily diagnose and treat these patients.
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Case Report JRPMS, Vol 6, No 1, March 2022, p.14-19
Primary Multi Drug Resistant Tuberculosis (MDR TB) Osteomyelitis in Sternum associated with Xeroderma Pigmentosa: A Case Report
Arvind Vatkar, Sachin Y. Kale, Shivam Mehra, Pramod Bhor, Aditya Gunjotikar, Nikhil R. Isaacs
Keywords: Immunodeficiency, Multidrug resistant Tuberculosis, Pectoral muscle cold abscess, Xeroderma Pigmentosa
Abstract
Xeroderma Pigmentosa (XP) is an autosomal recessive genetic disorder which causes defective gene repair. This makes XP patients cancer-prone and immunodeficient. A 10-year-old male child with XP was infected with MDR Tubercular Osteomyelitis of sternum. He had constitutional symptoms of TB like weight loss and loss of appetite. He had also developed an abscess in his right pectoral muscles. MRI was done to find out exact location and spread of infection. The abscess was aspirated by Z technique and sent for a Gene Xpert test. Patient was started on second line of anti-tubercular therapy. MDR TB is a growing challenge to treat with anti-tubercular therapy. The link of genetic disorders like XP and infections like TB (which increase in immuno-deficient subjects) needs to be studied further.
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Review Article JRPMS, Vol 6, No 1, March 2022, p.20-26
Impact of diabetes mellitus on maxillofacial complex and orthodontic treatment
Maria Bampiolaki, Christos Zafeiris, Aliki Rontogianni, Apostolos I. Tsolakis
Keywords: Bone alterations, Diabetes mellitus, Orthodontic treatment, Temporomandibular joint
Abstract
Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common metabolic disorders, diagnosed in 3% to 4% of the population. Its main characteristic is hyperglycemia caused by the body’s impaired insulin management. Two major types of diabetes mellitus exist. Type 1 is a complete lack of insulin secretion. Type 2 combines impedance to insulin action and inadequate compensatory insulin secretion. Although, most of the orthodontic patients under orthodontic treatment are young persons in good health condition, lately there has been a great rise in the number of adults seeking orthodontic treatment. Many adults suffer from systematic diseases, including diabetes mellitus. There are various oral manifestations of the disease and they are mainly detected to patients with either poorly controlled or completely uncontrolled diabetes. Moreover, diabetes mellitus seems to affect temporomandibular joint function and may cause bone alterations. Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder which every single dentist encounters, hence it is essential, that he is able to recognize its signs, symptoms, diagnostic and therapeutic aspects and face the emergencies when they arise. The aim of this article is to present the way in which diabetes mellitus affects patient’s orthodontic treatment.
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Mini Review JRPMS, Vol 6, No 1, March 2022, p.27-30
Sarcopenic obesity
Magdalini A. Nikolaou, Dimitris A. Nikolaou
Keywords: Multifactorial disease, Obesity, Sarcopenia
Abstract
Sarcopenic obesity is considered to be the unique co-existence of two distinctive pathologies: those of sarcopenia and obesity, which affects primarily older adults. Its manifestation is not afflicted by the individual’s age, sex or body weight. There is a number of different diagnostic methods, and that goes for the therapeutic approach as well. Nutrition could be one of the key-factors of tackling sarcopenic obesity, being supported by proper physical exercise. This short review aims at providing current definitions and diagnostic as well as therapeutic interventions.
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