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Volume 8, Issue 1, March 2024

Original Article JRPMS, Vol 8, No 1, March 2024, p.1-6
Gender differences in musculoskeletal discomfort due to computer use among university students in the United States
Priyadarshini Pattath
Keywords: Computer use, Gender, Musculoskeletal disorders, Students
Objective: Women report higher incidence of musculoskeletal discomfort due to computer use. This study examines the gender differences in the association of musculoskeletal discomfort and computing characteristics among university students. Methods: A cross-sectional survey design was used with a sample size of 338 students from a public university. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to assess associations of musculoskeletal discomfort and participant characteristics. Results: 61% of students reported having MSD. Male students between the age group of 26-35 years (AOR=5.086 [CI=1.05-24.48]) and those who only sometimes took breaks (AOR=3.835 [CI=1.25-11.71]) were more likely to report MSDs. Female students who used computer for more than 8 hours a day (AOR=6.199 [CI=2.38-16.11]), those who spent between 5-8 hours (AOR=2.174 [CI=1.04-4.51]), and those who assumed awkward postures (AOR =5.588 [CI= 1.24-25.1]) were more likely to report MSDs after adjustment. Conclusion: It is important to emphasize the benefits of ergonomics for males in the adult age group. Regardless of age, for female students' adequate breaks from using the computer, and avoiding awkward postures are necessary to prevent and mitigate the risk factors of musculoskeletal discomfort. The different risks factors for male and female students have important implications for prevention of musculoskeletal disorders.
Review Article JRPMS, Vol 8, No 1, March 2024, p.7-10
Bone Marrow Edema and Zoledronic Acid - A Narrative Review
Christiana Zidrou, Efstathios Chronopoulos
Keywords: Ankle, Bone marrow edema, Hip, Knee, Zoledronic acid
The objective of this study was to investigate and evaluate the effectiveness of a single dose of zoledronic acid in the treatment of bone marrow edema syndrome (BMES) in all lower extremity locations (hip, knee, foot, and ankle). A literature search was conducted on electronic databases (PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar) to identify clinical studies on the therapeutic use of zoledronic acid for patients with bone marrow edema syndrome. Until today, very few studies have been conducted using zoledronic acid in patients with bone marrow edema syndrome. The majority of them are retrospective. This narrative review suggests the effectiveness of a single dose of intravenously administered zoledronic acid in patients with bone marrow edema syndrome in three anatomical locations: the hip, knee, and foot/ankle. Zoledronic acid, often used in combination with partial-weight bearing, appears to reduce pain intensity, improve range of motion, and decrease lesion size in MRI imaging findings. The administration of a single dose of intravenous zoledronic acid is a reasonable therapeutic option for patients with bone marrow edema (BMES). It accelerates the time to pain resolution and simultaneously improves imaging findings in MRI. Further prospective clinical studies with a larger number of patients and longer follow-up periods are needed.
Review Article JRPMS, Vol 8, No 1, March 2024, p.11-18
Modern Antiretroviral Therapy and Fracture Risk
Nikolaos Inglezos
Keywords: Antiretroviral therapy, Bone mineral density, Fracture risk, HIV, Osteoporosis
Excessive bone loss has been noticed in HIV patients, under no antiretroviral therapy, suggesting that HIV is an independent factor for osteoporosis. However, it is still controversial if bone mineral density reduction and increased fracture risk is related to HIV itself or to antiretroviral therapy, with a contribution from both likely. The purpose of this study is to review the association of modern antiretroviral drugs with fracture risk. A simple literature review was performed in the PubMed database. The final search identified 21 studies (6 prospective randomized studies, 4 prospective cohort studies, 3 cross-sectional studies, 4 case–control studies, and 4 retrospective studies). It appears that the pathogenesis of osteoporotic fractures in AIDS patients is multifactorial. The majority of studies show mixed results regarding the effect of most antiretroviral drugs. Further high-quality research is needed to fully elucidate the role of antiretroviral drugs in the pathogenesis of bone loss, osteoporosis, and osteoporotic fractures in HIV-infected patients.
Review Article JRPMS, Vol 8, No 1, March 2024, p.19-23
School Screening for Idiopathic Scoliosis
Vasiliki P. Myriouni, Christos P. Zafeiris
Keywords: Cost-effectiveness, Effectiveness, Idiopathic scoliosis, School screening
The purpose of this paper is to examine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of school screening for idiopathic scoliosis. To achieve this goal, a review of the international literature was conducted. Through the analysis of the findings, it can be concluded that school screening is an effective and cost-effective process, especially if some modifications with more specific targeting are incorporated, which can enhance the cost effectiveness even further.
Review Article JRPMS, Vol 8, No 1, March 2024, p.24-34
Bone Disease in Autoimmune Rheumatic Diseases Among Young Adults: A Comprehensive Review
Athanasia Tatsi, Symeon Tournis
Keywords: Avascular necrosis, Autoimmune rheumatic diseases, Osteoporosis, Glucocorticoids
Autoimmune rheumatic diseases (ARDs) encompass a diverse array of conditions with varied clinical manifestations affecting multiple body systems. Among young patients with ARD, the most common bone disorders are avascular necrosis (AVN) and osteoporosis. ARDs and glucocorticoid use pose major risk factors for AVN and osteoporosis in this population. Unexplained hip pain should raise suspicion of AVN, warranting further investigation, such as MRI. While traditionally associated with older individuals, osteoporosis should not be overlooked in young adults with ARDs. Assessing fracture risk and implementing appropriate management strategies are crucial. Early recognition and tailored treatment are essential for preserving quality of life. ARDs and glucocorticoid use increase osteoporosis risk. Premenopausal women with conditions like rheumatoid arthritis may experience a 17.1% decrease in femoral neck BMD. Similarly, patients with spondyloarthritis exhibit high osteoporosis rates. Diagnosing and managing osteoporosis in young adults remain challenging, highlighting the importance of fracture prevention. Guidelines offer recommendations for preventing, monitoring, and treating glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis. Considering prevention, early recognition, and appropriate treatment are vital during the clinical evaluation of young adults. Addressing these aspects improves outcomes and mitigates skeletal comorbidity in ARDs.