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Volume 6, Issue 2, June 2022

Review Article JRPMS, Vol 6, No 2, June 2022, p.31-36
Current treatment of infected arthroplasties
Elisavet Mantzila, Efstathios Chronopoulos
Keywords: Arthroplasties, Infection, Joint, Prosthetic, Treatment
Abstract
Total hip and knee arthroplasties are among the most popular and common orthopaedic surgical interventions. Despite the very high success rate of those operations and the ongoing technical improvements, they still carry the risk of various complications, with the deep infections being among the most serious ones. The periprosthetic joint infection is defined as the presence of bacteria in the joint space of the artificial joint and the surrounding tissues, which is significantly associated with laboratory and histological findings and clinical signs of inflammation. Those infections, according to the time of their occurrence are characterized as acute -early postoperative, delayed and chronic. The most common microorganisms responsible for their cause are the coagulase-negative Staphyloccocal species and Staphylococcus aureus. Treatment of those infections involves a variety of combinations of procedures, both conservative and operative; the best treatment is the one which combines the elimination of the infection with the least possible complications for the patient. Debridement with retention of the prosthesis, one stage arthroplasty exchange and two stage arthoplasty exchange are the most commonly accepted surgical procedures for the treatment of this complication, whereas arthroplasty resection without reimplantation and arthrodesis are salvage procedures in order to avoid the unfortunate, but at least very rare solution of the amputation of the limb.
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Mini Review JRPMS, Vol 6, No 2, June 2022, p.37-41
RANK, RANK-L and OPG system as a prognostic and severity indicator for metastatic bone disease
Anna-Louiza Chaliasou, Christos Zafeiris
Keywords: Biomarker, Metastatic bone disease, RANK/RANK-L/OPG system
Abstract
Bones represent the third most common location of metastatic tumors in patients with generalized malignancy. A percentage of 83% of the patients with bone metastases will experience pain due to them and many of them will not receive adequate therapy, which will result in a decrease in their life quality. The system that is composed by the receptor activator of nuclear factor (NF)-kΒ-ligand (RANK-L), the receptor activator of nuclear factor kB (RANK) and the receptor osteoprotegerin (OPG) play a key role in the migration and growth of neoplastic cells, especially in metastatic bone disease. The aim of this review is to process the contemporary knowledge of the role of the RANK/ RANK-L/OPG system in carcinogenesis and to evaluate the potential use of the system or parts of it as biomarkers and indicators of the severity and the prognosis of metastatic bone disease. Finally, a suggestion is made for further investigation between the association of serum RANK, RANK-L and OPG levels and the severity of pain patients with metastatic bone disease endure.
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Mini Review JRPMS, Vol 6, No 2, June 2022, p.42-47
The role of long non-coding RNAs in bone diseases
Cristina Elena Atudorei, Eleana Fitsi, Stavroula Rizou
Keywords: Bone, Long Noncoding RNAs, Osteoporosis, Osteoarthritis, Rheumatoid arthritis
Abstract
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have gained great attention in recent years as critical players in bone biology and bone diseases. A growing number of studies have demonstrated that lncRNAs are involved in osteogenic differentiation and thus serve a pivotal role in the process of occurrence and progression of bone-related diseases. Dysregulation of their expression seem to be implicated in skeletal tissue abnormalities, This article reviews the importance of lncRNAs in the cellular and molecular mechanisms of bone development, their regulatory role in tissue differentiation and in bone cells and we will highlight potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets for the treatment of bone diseases.
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Review Article JRPMS, Vol 6, No 2, June 2022, p.48-54
Association of the B-complex vitamins with osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures
Elpida D. Sachinidi
Keywords: Fractures, MTHFR, Osteoporosis, RANK, Vitamin B
Abstract
Osteoporosis is a bone metabolic disease associated with low bone mass and deterioration of bone microarchitecture, thus increasing the risk for potential fractures. There is emerging evidence supporting the role of vitamin B in bone health and the prevention of fractures. In this review we evaluated both observational studies and studies assessing the genetic association of the group of B vitamins with the risk for osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures. We retrieved 25 relevant studies and according to the results, future research is necessary to determine if dietary intake and supplementation of vitamin b may have a potential influence on osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures.
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Review Article JRPMS, Vol 6, No 2, June 2022, p.55-64
Communication of patients and healthcare personnel during the diagnostic radiological process
Kalliopi Alamanioti, George I. Lambrou
Keywords: Communication, Nursing staff, Physician, Patient, Radiology
Abstract
Communication can be defined as an exchange of information between a sender and a receiver. Communication in medicine fosters the development of a therapeutic relationship. Communication between medical or nursing staff and patients during the process of a radiological diagnostic investigation constitutes a challenge, as the main objective of the procedure is the production of medical images. Communication between patients, doctors and nurses over the course of a radiological procedure can be divided into what takes place before, during, and after the imaging procedure. Communication before the procedure allows the involved parts, to meet, to start the therapeutic relationship, to explain the planned radiological investigation and set the groundwork for safety in the imaging procedure. During the procedure, the supportive role of the healthcare professionals is critical for succeeding in the production of clinically useful images, and to ensure the patient tolerates the investigation. After the procedure, communication aims at relaying the result, as well as supporting and guiding patients accordingly. The development of communication skills by the healthcare professionals is paramount for effective contact with patients in all three phases of the radiological diagnostic process, and should be the result of formal education. Optimal communication practices result in higher patient satisfaction levels, while every healthcare provider should factor-in the cost of achieving quality in communication.
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