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JRPMS Vol 7, No 1, March 2023, p.26-32

doi: 10.22540/JRPMS-07-026


Review Article

The role of miRNAs in titanium implants-molecular and pathophysiological mechanisms

Ioannis Ioakeimidis1, George I. Lambrou1,2,3

  1. Postgraduate Program “Metabolic Bone Diseases”, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Medical School, Athens, Greece
  2. Laboratory for the Research of the Musculoskeletal System “Th. Garofalidis”, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Medical School, Athens, Greece
  3. Choremeio Research Laboratory, First Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece

Keywords: Titanium implants, miRNAs, osseointegration, peri-implantitis


Implants are structures made of alloplastic materials. They are widely implemented in both orthopedics and dentistry in order to rehabilitate different parts of the body with predictable outcomes. Although plenty materials have been introduced, titanium still remains the gold standard in Implantology. MiRNAs constitute a group of small non-coding RNA sequences composed of approximately 22 nucleotides. It is a well-known fact that they play a significant role in various biological processes such as osseointegration and peri-implant health maintenance, promoting the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells into osteoblast cells. They regulate bone remodeling and signaling pathways of bone formation as well. Moreover, miRNAs can be utilized as activators of implant surfaces, biomarkers in the diagnostic process and finally occupy a prominent place in the therapeutic approach in Implantology. Even though the importance of miRNAs in Implantology is obvious, more studies are needed for a complete comprehension of the effects triggered by miRNAs.