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JRPMS Vol 6, No 2, June 2022, p.37-41

doi: 10.22540/JRPMS-06-037

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Mini Review

RANK, RANK-L and OPG system as a prognostic and severity indicator for metastatic bone disease

Anna-Louiza Chaliasou1, Christos Zafeiris1,2

  1. Postgraduate Program “Metabolic Bone Diseases”, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Medical School, Athens, Greece
  2. Laboratory for the Research of the Musculoskeletal System “Th. Garofalidis”, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Medical School, Athens, Greece

Keywords: Biomarker, Metastatic bone disease, RANK/RANK-L/OPG system


Abstract

Bones represent the third most common location of metastatic tumors in patients with generalized malignancy. A percentage of 83% of the patients with bone metastases will experience pain due to them and many of them will not receive adequate therapy, which will result in a decrease in their life quality. The system that is composed by the receptor activator of nuclear factor (NF)-kΒ-ligand (RANK-L), the receptor activator of nuclear factor kB (RANK) and the receptor osteoprotegerin (OPG) play a key role in the migration and growth of neoplastic cells, especially in metastatic bone disease. The aim of this review is to process the contemporary knowledge of the role of the RANK/ RANK-L/OPG system in carcinogenesis and to evaluate the potential use of the system or parts of it as biomarkers and indicators of the severity and the prognosis of metastatic bone disease. Finally, a suggestion is made for further investigation between the association of serum RANK, RANK-L and OPG levels and the severity of pain patients with metastatic bone disease endure.