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JRPMS Vol 6, No 1, March 2022, p.20-26

doi: 10.22540/JRPMS-06-020


Review Article

Impact of diabetes mellitus on maxillofacial complex and orthodontic treatment

Maria Bampiolaki1, Christos Zafeiris1, Aliki Rontogianni2, Apostolos I. Tsolakis2,3

  1. Laboratory of Research of the Musculoskeletal System, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, KAT Hospital, Athens, Greece
  2. Department of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece
  3. Department of Orthodontics, School of Dental Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, USA

Keywords: Bone alterations, Diabetes mellitus, Orthodontic treatment, Temporomandibular joint


Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common metabolic disorders, diagnosed in 3% to 4% of the population. Its main characteristic is hyperglycemia caused by the body’s impaired insulin management. Two major types of diabetes mellitus exist. Type 1 is a complete lack of insulin secretion. Type 2 combines impedance to insulin action and inadequate compensatory insulin secretion. Although, most of the orthodontic patients under orthodontic treatment are young persons in good health condition, lately there has been a great rise in the number of adults seeking orthodontic treatment. Many adults suffer from systematic diseases, including diabetes mellitus. There are various oral manifestations of the disease and they are mainly detected to patients with either poorly controlled or completely uncontrolled diabetes. Moreover, diabetes mellitus seems to affect temporomandibular joint function and may cause bone alterations. Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder which every single dentist encounters, hence it is essential, that he is able to recognize its signs, symptoms, diagnostic and therapeutic aspects and face the emergencies when they arise. The aim of this article is to present the way in which diabetes mellitus affects patient’s orthodontic treatment.