JRPMS Vol 5, No 4, December 2021, p.134-139
The role of microRNAs in osteοporosis: A brief review
Despina Misiaka1, George I. Lambrou1,2,3
- Postgraduate Program “Metabolic Bones Diseases”, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Medical School, Athens, Greece
- Laboratory for the Research of the Musculoskeletal System “Th. Garofalidis”, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Medical School, Athens, Greece
- Choremeio Research Laboratory, First Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece, Athens, Greece
Keywords: microRNA, Osteoblasts, Osteoclasts, Osteoporosis
Osteoporosis is a common disease, characterized by loss of bone mass and increased incidence of fractures, due to increased bone resorption through osteoclasts and decreased bone production through osteoblasts. MicroRNA (miRNA) is a type of short non-coding RNA with a length of 20-25 nucleotides, which exerts post-transcriptional control by inhibiting or degrading target genes. Recently, it has been noticed that miRNAs may play a significant role in the pathophysiology of osteoporosis as they influence the process of bone remodeling by regulating the differentiation and function of osteoblasts and osteoclasts. More specifically, miRNAs promote apoptosis and inhibit the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts. At the same time, there are miRNAs that promote osteoclast apoptosis, thus delaying bone loss in patients with osteoporosis, while also affecting the osteogenetic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells. MiRNAs-based treatments for osteoporosis have not yet been in the clinical stage, so more studies are needed.