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JRPMS Vol 2, No 4, December 2018, p.118-123

doi: 10.22540/JRPMS-02-118


Original Article

Quantitative ultrasound densitometry of the calcaneus in acute and chronic anterior cruciate ligament deficiency

Christos K. Yiannakopoulos, Iakovos Vlastos, Theodoros Zekis, Georgios Theotokatos, Elissavet Rousanoglou

  • Sports Medicine & Biology of Exercise Department, School of Physical Education and Sport Science, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Greece

Keywords: Anterior Cruciate Ligament Deficiency, Bone Mineral Density, BUA, Calcaneus, SOS, Quantitative Ultrasound


Purpose: To evaluate the effect of acute and chronic knee instability secondary to anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) deficiency on the ultrasound-measured density and bone quality of the calcaneus, implementing quantitative ultrasound densitometry. Methods: Bilateral measurements of the speed of sound (SOS) and broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) of the calcaneus were performed on a cohort of 97 male patients with acute (n=38) or chronic (n=57) unilateral ACL deficiency. Results: In the acute ACL tear group, BUA was 56.181±3.731 dB/ MHz on the affected extremity calcaneus and 57.030±6.564 dB/MHz on the uninjured side, whilst the SOS was 1577.265±14.04 m/sec and 1584.675±11.484 m/sec respectively. The difference between the two sides was not significant. In the chronic ACL deficiency group, however, there was significant difference between both calcanei for both BUA (p<0.01) and SOS (p<0.001). BUA was 47.307±3.786 dB/MHz on the affected extremity calcaneus and 59.011±3.64 dB/MHz on the uninjured extremity calcaneus, whilst the SOS was 1457.873±9.467 m/sec and 1579.413±8.404 m/sec respectively. Conclusion: Chronic ACL deficiency adversely affects the structural properties and the bone quality of the calcaneus. Level of evidence: Level II, prospective comparative study.