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JRPMS Vol 2, No 3, September 2018, p.81-84

doi: 10.22540/JRPMS-02-081


Mini Review

Pin site infections in pediatric population, microbiology, treatment and long-term functional disability

Sophia A. Syngouna1, Pantelis K. Mitsikostas2, Emmanouil Fandridis3, Ioannis K. Triantafyllopoulos4

  1. 3rd Orthopaedic Department, UoA, KAT Hospital, Kifisia, Greece
  2. 1st Orthopaedic Department, KAT Hospital, Kifisia, Greece
  3. Hand-Upper Limb & Microsurgery Department, KAT Hospital, Kifisia, Greece
  4. Medical School, National and Kapodestrian University of Athens, Greece

Keywords: Pediatric, Hand, Upper extremity, Infections, Osteomyelitis


Pin site or pin track infection (PTI) is the most common complication when applying external fixation. In case of failure of proper treatment, PTI will progress to soft tissue infection and osteomyelitis and cause mechanical loosening of the osteosynthesis and instability. Thus pin site infection remains a clinical challenge in deformity corrections, limb lengthening, and pediatric fracture osteosynthesis. This article discusses the pathophysiology, microbiology, and epidemiology of pin site infection in pediatric populations, as well as treatment and long-term functional outcomes.