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JRPMS Vol 4, No 4, December 2020, p.90-95

doi: 10.22540/JRPMS-04-090


Review Article

The effects of sex steroids on bone via extraskeletal actions

Stavros Fokas, George Moustakas, George Tsirpanlis

  • Department of Nephrology, General Hospital “G. Gennimatas”, Athens, Greece

Keywords: Adipokines, Cytokines, Oxidative stress, Sarcopenia, Sex steroids


Sex steroids have direct effect on bone via their action on the estrogen and androgen receptors of bone cells. However, there is emerging evidence that their indirect actions on bone can play also important role in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis and bone loss in inflammatory diseases. The tissues that are involved in the extraskeletal actions of sex hormones and are better studied in the past few decades are adipose tissue, muscle tissue and the immune system. Key regulators on those complex pathways are molecules such as cytokines, adipokines and reactive oxygen species.