JRPMS Vol 3, No 1, March 2019, p.9-16
Dental implants in patients with oral autoimmune diseases
Theodora S. Tounta
- Private Dentist, Athens, Greece
Keywords: Oral autoimmune diseases, Dental implants, Lichen planus, Pemphigus, Peri-implantitis
Oral mucosal autoimmune diseases include a variety of disorders, like oral lichen planus (OLP), pemphigus vulgaris (PV), mucous membrane (MMP) and bullous pemphigoid (BP), epidermolysis bullosa acquisita (EBA), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and Sjögren syndrome (SS) and can cause painful erosions, blisters and ulceration at the oral epithelium. Such diseases complicate dental hygiene and can lead to tooth loss. When natural teeth are missing, dental implants can improve quality of life for these patients. Osseointegration is necessary for dental implant success and is not contraindicated for patients with oral mucosal autoimmune diseases. However, the clinical dentist must consider the possible impact of oral autoimmune diseases on the oral epithelium that might affect implant success, also due to the difficulty of everyday oral hygiene, leading to bone absorption around the implant. Moreover, medication approved for the therapy of such diseases, such as corticosteroids, immunosuppressants and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) could provoke osseointegration, as it compromises bone quality and affects the patient’s general health. However, the impact of these drugs on implant surgery depends on dose and duration of the drug and usually dental implantation is possible.